Are you determined enough to work for the country? Do you have the zeal of doing something for the people of our country? If yes, then the Punjab Public Service Commission exam is your goal. Ensure that before you take the pledge of serving the nation and its people, first of all, you need to serve yourself with the right guidance and knowledge. Appearing for the PPSC exam is something too big in itself but all that matters at the end are how you perceive the exam. While preparing for PPSC exam, the main problem that people come across is getting the right PPSC anthropology syllabus.
The next main thing after you find out your Punjab Public Service Commission Syllabus is choosing the best optional subject for PPSC that can help you clear the exam. When it comes to choosing the optional most of the students prefer choosing anthropology as the optional subject. It is because this subject is very easy for the students when compared to the other subject. Therefore, it is a must for you to know about the anthropology optional syllabus for PPSC. If you are confused about how to do it, then Sapiens IAS is here to help you to the full. They will guide you by providing the right Punjab Public Service Commission anthropology syllabus so that you can excel. Being the experienced and experts, we must support you in the best way possible, since we are the best online coaching for PPSC anthropology. Now let us take a look at what you need to know about the PPSC anthropology syllabus.
PAPER – I
1.1 Meaning, scope and development of Anthropology.
1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, Behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
(a) Social- cultural Anthropology.
(b) Biological Anthropology.
(c) Archaeological Anthropology.
(d) Linguistic Anthropology.
1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.
(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution)..
1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.
1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :
(a) Plio-pleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.
(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
(c) Neanderthal Man- La-Chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).
(d) Rhodesian man.
(e) Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.
1.7 The biological basis of life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.
1.8 Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology :
(a) Relative and Absolute Dating methods.
(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures:
(v) Copper-Bronze Age
(vi) Iron Age
2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-à-vis cultural Relativism.
2.2 The Nature of Society: Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institutions; Social= groups; and Social stratification.
2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Types of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).
2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.
2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation; Descent and Alliance.
3. Economic organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.
4. Political organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple societies.
5. Religion: Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico- religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).
6. Anthropological theories :
(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)
(b) Historical particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural-functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)
(d) Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Leach)
(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
(f) Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)
(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)
(j) Post- modernism in anthropology
7. Culture, language and communication : Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social context of language use.
8. Research methods in anthropology :
(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology
(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology
(c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.
(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
9.1 Human Genetics – Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.
9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.
9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency–mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.
9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.
(a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).
(b) Sex chromosomal aberrations – Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.
(c) Autosomal aberrations – Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.
(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.
9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and metric characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.
9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker—ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-economic groups.
9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology. Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non- genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.
9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases. Nutritional deficiency related diseases.
10. Concept of human growth and development : stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.— Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. — Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations—biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.
11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and
11.2 Demographic theories—biological, social and cultural.
11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.
12. Applications of Anthropology: Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics – Paternity diagnosis, genetic counseling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.
PAPER – II
1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization — Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic). Protohistoric (Indus Civilization) : Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of tribal cultures to Indian civilization.
1.2 Palaeo – anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).
1.3 Ethno-archaeology in India : The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.
2. Demographic profile of India — Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.
3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system — Varnashram, Purushartha,= Karma, Rina and Rebirth.
3.2 Caste system in India—structure and characteristics, Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system, Tribe—caste continuum.
3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man—Spirit Complex.
3.4 Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity on Indian society.
4. Emergence and growth of anthropology in India—Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.
5.1 Indian Village :—Significance of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.
5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.
5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society :— Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati raj and social change; Media and social change.
6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of tribal populations and their distribution.
6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, underemployment, health and nutrition.
6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanization and industrialization on tribal populations.
7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.
7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies—Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.
7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism; Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.
8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.
8.2 Tribe and nation state — a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.
9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.Os in tribal development.
9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.
9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism, and ethnic and political movements.
How to Prepare for PPSC Exam for Anthropology Optional?
Many students are too much confused about how and where to start the preparation. This is why we at Sapiens IAS are here to help you with some excellent ideas that are advised by the experts. Anthropology can be a stroke of genius for all the PPSC aspirants in order to obtain good results with the help of knowing the optional anthropology syllabus for PPSC. Well here’s a quick rundown that will allow you to learn how to use anthropology optional for PPSC to study for the exam. So, let us continue with how to prepare anthropology optional for PPSC.
- At first, you have to be informed of the optional PPSC anthropology syllabus.
- The very next issue that nearly every student is uncertain about is what optional is best for PPSC anthropology. You can certainly consider finding the best anthropology book is best for PPSC optional.
- Begin by planning your own study plan that is convenient for you. It’s because the PPSC anthropology syllabus is too lengthy, and you need to make it before the deadline.
- Then you could suggest entering a coaching center online or locally. It will benefit you tremendously, since; you would be able to make contact with professionals and know more.
- Finally, it is also best to turn up for the test series and to try to answer the questions of the preceding year. This will refine your skills and give you the ability to become even more confident.
Best PPSC or PSC Online Coaching in India for Anthropology- Sapiens IAS
As one of the leading institutes for the PPSC exam, since it started, Sapiens IAS has become the most regarded one. Incorporated in 2007 under the guidance of Mr. Pradip Sarkar, this institute has almost always targeted to provide quality education to its students so that PPSC clearing could become convenient for them. From the time we started, we have also been growing significantly and are continuously doing our maximum to let the students achieve their dreams by supporting them in a difficult subject like anthropology.
- While appearing for Punjab Public Service Commission how many times you can give the exam?
Lately, the rule about the number of times one can appear for the exam has changed. Anyone how wished to appear for the Punjab Public Service Commission has been limited to three times.
- Which is better Sociology or Anthropology for PPSC?
This question is a bit tricky since we feel that this depends on an individual’s choice. But anthropology is surely a better choice for the students. It is easy to study since it is a combination of science and social science.
- Is there any negative marking in the PPSC exam?
Yes, there is negative marking in the Punjab Public Service Commission exam. 0.25 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer in the multiple-choice question paper of the PPSC exam.